VMWare tools installation for Mandriva

I meant to write this post for a long time, but today my level of frustration having to carry out the process below, all over again (upgrade of vmware workstation to version 6.0.5 meant another version of tools to be installed to run my mandriva inside Vista) reached a point where I saved it – and here it is (your mileage in regards to version of either vmware, or mandriva kernel, or both, may vary, but the problem is there):

# vmware-config-tools.pl

… — eventually the following comes up

What is the location of the directory of C header files that match your running
kernel? [/usr/src/linux/include]

The directory of kernel headers (version does not match
your running kernel (version  Even if the module were
to compile successfully, it would not load into the running kernel.

PROBLEM: different names used by mandriva in different places. Here is what we have, in the scenario above:

# ls -l /usr/src/linux

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 19 2008-08-19 08:55 /usr/src/linux -> linux-

NOTE the -1mnb

Now let’s do this:

# grep -r 1mnb /usr/src/linux

/usr/src/linux/fs/proc/proc_misc.c:     printk(KERN_INFO “Hook version: 2008/07/11\n”);
/usr/src/linux/include/config/auto.conf:# Linux kernel version:
/usr/src/linux/include/linux/utsrelease.h:#define UTS_RELEASE “”
/usr/src/linux/include/linux/autoconf.h: * Linux kernel version:
/usr/src/linux/include/linux/autoconf.h:#define CONFIG_KERNELVERSION “”
/usr/src/linux/Makefile:EXTRAVERSION = .7-1mnbcustom
/usr/src/linux/.config:# Linux kernel version:

It looks like we’ll have to change ALL occurences of the string “” in the files above, with what the info about the running kernel is, i.e. “”. So:

# grep -rl 1mnbcustom . |xargs sed -i -e ‘s/1mnbcustom/desktop-1mnb/g’


# vmware-config-tools.pl

runs to completion!

useful analysis tools – usage reminder

How to obtain multiple files during a capture:

$ tethereal -i <interface> -a filesize:3000 -b 14 -s 96 -w <capture_file>
(3MB files of 96 bytes length)

NOTE: tcpdump defaults to 96 bytes length, also, but I am not sure if it supports ring buffer?!?


If multiple files matching the regexp FOOBAR are to be merged :

$ mergecap -w bigfile.cap `ls FOOBAR`


Determine the type and length of capture:

$ file <capture_file>
capture_file: tcpdump capture file (big-endian) – version 2.4 (Ethernet, capture length 96)


Analysis of capture file by reading the file in ntop, for statistics

# ntop -f <dump_file> -m <subnet_considered_local>

# ntop -c -m -n -q -O <ntop-suspicious> -r 30 -u root

where: subnet considered local was

then connect to http://localhost:3000


Analysis of capture file through snort (create config file, first!), with the following command:

$ sudo snort -r <capture_file> -c <config_file> -X -d -A full


Determine the number of connections in a capture file:

./tcptrace -t -n <capture_file>


Stats w/tethereal:

# tethereal -i eth2 -z “io,stat,60,tcp&&tcp.port==21&&tcp.flags==0x02,\



# tcpdump -r <file> ==> time LOCAL to where the trace is being read
# tcpdump -r <file> -tt ==> UNIX epoch time
# date -r <result_of_above>
# tcpdump -r <file> -tttt ==> UTC time

So – we could potentially identify the location of the systems!


Example of usage – tcpflow accepts “expression” BPFs

#tcpflow -r <file_name> -c “(src port 21 and host” or “(src port 20 and host” > flowfile.txt

NOTE: -c above forces tcpflow to combine the traffic into one file (otherwise – if omitted – tcpflow creates two files: one from source, one from destination)


Determine OS:

# p0f -s <capture_file> -x “expression” (usually “host <IP_address>”)

NOTE: -x dumps the whole package content

Consolidate src-dst – see Honeynet challenge 23 – very, very useful!

$ tethereal -nr <capture_file> | ./sumsrcdst > file_with_conversations


TTL by IP conversation

$ tcpdump -vvvr <capture_file> |awk ‘{print $2, $5, $6, $15, $17}’ |sed ‘s/,//;s/://;s/\./ /4’ |sed ‘s/\./ /7’ |grep IP |awk ‘{print $3, $4, $6}’ |sort |uniq > ttl-by-ip-conv.txt


ngrep (-q) -> string searches inside network captures:

$ ngrep -I <capture_file> -q -x ‘passwd’ ‘tcp port 21’ –> reveals the attempts for passwd file retrieval or processing via ftp

also: $ ngrep -q -I <capture_file> passwd port 21

$ ngrep -I 2003.12.15.cap -q -x ‘shadow’ ‘tcp port 21’ –> same with shadow file access attempts


Time-related splitting of files:

# tethereal -r <capture_file> -w <new_file> -R ‘(frame.time >= “Jan 8, 2004 22:00:00.00”) && (frame.time <= “Jan 8, 2004 23:00:00.00”)’


Validate distance between networks as previously obtained w/ntop:

$ sudo p0f -l -s <capture_file> |sed ‘s/>//g’ |awk -F “-” ‘{print $1,$3}’ |grep distance |sed ‘s/:/ /g’ |awk ‘{print $1″<–>”$3″==”$6}’ |sed ‘s/,//’ |sort |uniq > distances.txt


TCP conversations, sorted and counted:

$ tcptrace -n -t <capture_file> |sed s/”:”/” “/g |awk ‘{print $2 $4 $5}’ |sort |uniq -c |sort –


Finding all hosts having been contacted by on the SSH port:

$ tcpdump -r <capture_file> -X -s 1514 ‘host and tcp port 22’ |grep ssh |awk ‘{print $3;}’ |awk -F. ‘{print $1″.”$2″.”$3”.”$4;}’ |sort |uniq


MAC address connections:

$ tcpdump -neqr <capture_file> |awk ‘{print $2″ “$3” “$4;}’ |sed ‘s/,//g’


MAC and IP connections in one line:

$ tcpdump -neqr <capture_file> |awk ‘{if ($5==”IPv4,”) print $2″ “$3” “$4” “$9” “$10” “$11;}’


Script to determine the MAC addresses associated with IPs:

$ tcpdump -nner <capture_file> | awk ‘{print $2 ” ” $11}’ | awk -F. ‘{if($1!~/x+|w+|r+/) print $1 “.” $2 “.” $3 “.” $4}’ |sort -u > mac-and-ip-address-pairs.txt


Creating individual capture files, based on some read-filters, prior to creation of output files:

$ tethereal -r <capture-file> -V -R <read-filter> -w <output-file>
$ tethereal -r <capture_file> -V -R ‘tcp.port==20 or tcp.port==21’ -w <ftp-sessions


Another way to reveal conversations:

$ ipsumdump -psSdD -r <capture_file> |sort +1n -n |uniq


MAC-to-vendor from oui.txt

$ awk ‘$1 ~ /^[0-9a-f][0-9a-f]\-[0-9a-f][0-9a-f]\-[0-9a-f][0-9a-f]/ {print $3}’ oui.txt
$ awk ‘$1 ~ /^[0-9a-f][0-9a-f]\-[0-9a-f][0-9a-f]\-[0-9a-f][0-9a-f]/ {print $1, $3}’ oui.txt |sed ‘s/-/:/g’ > mac-to-vendor.txt


Replace first 3 bytes of MAC address from source-mac.txt with vendor name from above:

$ awk ‘FNR==NR{a[$1]=$2;next} {b=$0;k=substr($1,1,8);if(k in a)b=a[k]substr($0,9);print b}’ mac-to-vendor.txt source-mac.txt > mac-to-vendor-to-ip.txt


Analysis of flows

$ tcpick -r <capture_file> -n -C -yP “host″ |egrep -v ‘FIN|SYN|TIME|CLOSED’


========= congraph shell script ==========

# tethereal creates a list of packets
# cut pulls off the two addresses
# sed removes the arrow to protect it from later munges
# sort puts duplicates next to each other
# uniq removes adjacent duplicates

tethereal -r $ipf -N mnt | awk ‘$4==”->”{print $3,”###”,$5;}’ | sort |uniq > raw

# Create the connections list:
# sed munges the names of the nodes
# sed prefixes node names that start with a digit

sed ‘s/[-\.:()]/_/g’ < raw | sed ‘s/\(^[0-9_][0-9_]*\)/IP\1/g;s/ \([0-9_][0-9_]*\)/IP\1/g’ > cons

# Create the nodes list:
# sed puts all node names on seperate lines
# sort | uniq removes duplicates
# sed duplicates the names on the same line, with one inside a label attribute
# sed munges the names in an identical manner to the connection list munge above, but only in the first name
# including prefixing names that start with a digit

sed ‘s/ ### /\n/’ < raw | sort | uniq | sed ‘s/\(.\+\)/\1 [label=\”\1\”]/’ | sed ‘:loop;s/[-\.:()]\(.* \[lab\)/_\1/;t loop;s/\(^[0-9]\)/IP\1/g’ > labels


Format tcpdump output, via tcptrace and using xplot:

$ sudo tcpdump -s 100 -w <output_file.cap> host <hostname_or_IP>
$ tcptrace -Sl <output_file.cap>
$ xplot a2b_tsg.xpl

Other tools: netwox/netwag; pcapmerge; argus/ra/racount/rasort; sguil (w/snort); ACID or BASE (w/snort) …

tunneling over SSH


$ ssh -N -f -L <local_port>:<end_server>:<end_port> user@ssh_intermediary_server

NOTE: if using auth. w/keys and no passwd, the last part (user@…) is not needed


$ ssh -f -N -L 8025:smtp.comcast.net:25 my_home_machine -L 8110:mail.comcast.net:110 my_home_machine

allows me to use the email client on a laptop, pointing to localhost:8025 for SMTP services, and localhost:8110 for POP3 services associated with my Comcast account, w/out traversing “foreign” networks with clear text credentials.

If moving between places, I would need tostop and restart the process. This could be as simple as:

$ ps aux |grep ssh |grep -v grep |awk ‘{print $2}’ |xargs kill -9